Defining Identity in the Midst of Substantialism and Constructivism

Gholam Reza Parhizkar / Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, IKI of Education and Research

Received: 2018/11/16 – Accepted: 2019/03/11                                                     gpicac@Gmail.com



The theoretical views on identity can be put into three general categories: those that, regardless of society , history, and its evolution, believe in a fixed essence for identity; those that regard human identity as lacking in an essence, and consider it as being formed merely in social environment and influenced by social knowledge and "others"; and those that, while accepting an essence and an existential structure for human beings, regard identity flourishing and change as influenced by society. By addressing three basic questions about identity, that is, the relationship between identity and "human existential structure", "cognition" and "otherness and distinction," the paper attempts to show the correctness of the third perspective, which accepts the essence of man and the role of society in forming identity, but does not regard knowledge and otherness as an exclusive factor in the emergence of identity. It considers them as important factors in flourishing and dynamism of identity within the framework of human existential essence. The research method is based on the logical analysis of the concepts used in defining identity or reference to evidence of social facts and extraction of its logical requirements.

Keywords: identity, substantialism, constructivism, recognition, distinction, other, human.

Social Change in the Experience and Thought of Imam Musa Sadr

Mohammad Ali Mir Ali / Associate Professor of Political Sciences, Jame’at al-Mostafa al-Alamiya alimir124@gmail.com

@ Mojtaba Namkhah / PhD Student of Muslims’ Social Knowledg, Baqir al-Olum University

Received: 2018/08/15 – Accepted: 2019/02/04                                namkhahmojtaba@gmail.com



This article examines the experiences and thoughts of Imam Musa Sadr on social change. It first narrates his experience in creating a social change, and then emphasizes an approach and theory that supports this experience. This review involves answering six basic questions about social change including the nature, method, trends, conditions, factors, and agents of social change. To this end, while studying the ideas of the activists and observers of this change, their works have been studied analytically. The study shows that Imam Musa Sadr defines social change as an essential necessity for monotheism and human evolution, and regards it as a continuous revolution. He believes in a gradual change that focuses on service to human beings, while taking into account the existential and objective conditions of social change, and considering the cultural context to be the cause of creating social change. In the field of managing the changes, while designing the two dichotomies of people / elites and movement / organization, he believes that the necessary force for change is created through a "popular movement".

Keywords: Imam Musa Sadr, social change, social movement, human.

The Principles of Sociocultural Determination of Mentally-Posited Knowledge in Al-Mizan

Hossein Ajdarizadeh / Assistant Professor of Islamic Studies, Naraq University

Received: 2018/10/15 – Accepted: 2019/02/24                                           hajdaryzadeh@rihu.ac.ir



The main subject of this research is the "sociocultural determination of mentally-posited knowledge" from the perspective of the late Allamah Tabataba'i in al-Mizan Commentary. Research questions include: What is the origin of mentally-posited knowledge? What are the effects of socio-cultural factors on their determination? At what level is this knowledge formed? What is the dominant factor? And what is the ultimate goal and axis of the changes in mentally-posited knowledge? In response to these questions, some of the results of this research show that the late Allameh Tabataba'i considers the origin of mentally-posited knowledge to be the nature of mankind. He introduces the impact of socio-cultural factors as an emergency impact, and considers different individual, group, party and etc. levels for this knowledge. Despite the influence of various social and cultural factors on mentally-posited knowledge, he regards nature as the main determining factor. Finally, he believes that the main goal of the change in mentally-posited knowledge is considered to be a posterior mentally-posited knowledge. In this paper, descriptive-analytical methods, content analysis and documentary methods have been used.

Keywords: Tabataba'i, Al-Mizan, special mentally-posited knowledge, culture, humanities, law, politics, determination, knowledge.

A Critical Examination of the Anthropological Foundations of the Theory of Historical Materialism

@ Zaher Yousefi / PhD Student of the Philosophy of Social Sciences, IKI of Education and Research, and Level 4 of Islamic Philosophy at Jame’at al-Mostafa al-Alamiya                                                                                                       Z_yusufi115@yahoo.com

Seyyed Hossein Sharafeddin / Associate Professor at Sociology Department, IKI of Education and Research Received: 2018/09/29 – Accepted: 2019/03/11                                                                                                                                                                                                    sharaf@qabas.net



The modern age is known as the age of the emergence and prominence of human being, in the modern sense, in the realm of knowledge. The human knowledge and thought determines the epistemic makeup of this era, and all the categories of modern science somehow pivot on human. Besides ontological foundations, Marx's theory of historical materialism has a strong anthropological foundation, and is based on a particular conception of mankind. Marx regards a form of man’s social existence, i.e. "work", as the basis of his dialectical analysis, which is both material and social-historical. According to Marx, the human world, that is, all symbols and manifestations, forms of consciousness and historical- social institutions, in all their various forms and shapes, are merely a product and a function of human’s action and work; they are manifested at any stage of history in a way and have shaped the coordinates of each historical and social period. While presenting a brief review of Marx's theory of historical materialism, this paper tries to study analytically and critically the most important anthropological assumptions.

Keywords: materialism, historical materialism, anthropological foundations, self-alienation, communism, Karl Marx.


Internalizing Teacher's Role in the Form of Emotional Labor (Case Study: Islamabad Qarb)

@ Akbar Talebpour / Associate Professor of Sociology, Ayatollah Boroujerdi University


Ibrahim Abbaspur / PhD in Sociology and Professor at Ayatullah Boroujerdi University


Kolthoom Ghanbari / MA in Sociology at Ayatollah Boroujerdi University

Received: 2018/09/11 – Accepted: 2019/01/22



Emotional labor is one of the new concepts introduced and developed by Arlie Russell Hochschild in the field of sociology. In this study, using the ideas of Hochschild, Ashforth and Humphrey, Maurice and Waldfeldman and Grandee, the amount of emotional labor and the factors influencing it in the target community were investigated. Based on the research findings, the factors affecting emotional labor are social capital, cultural capital, economic capital and religious interests. The emotional labor of teachers was measured considering the expressed opinions and the social factors affecting it in both surface and deep dimensions. By using survey method, stratified sampling and Cochran's formula, the variables of the research were measured among 350 teachers in Islamabad Gharb. The results of the research showed that the mean score of the emotional labor of teachers was 46.8, the mean score of deep acting was 22.84 and the mean score of surface acting was 51.6. Given the fact that surface acting was higher than deep acting, and the amount of emotional work was less than average, it can be established that teachers of the target community are not keen on internalizing the teaching job. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the independent variables could account for about 44 percent of changes in the emotional labor of teachers.

Keywords: emotional labor, surface acting, deep acting, teachers.

Studying the Causes of Student Marriage among University Students; A Phenomenological Study

@ Mohammad Mahdavi / Assistant Professor of Islamic Knowledge, Tabriz University


Shahrooz Ne’mati / Associate Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Tabriz University

Received: 2018/06/29 – Accepted: 2019/01/13                                                                    sh.nemati@tabrizu.ac.ir



This research has examined the causes of student marriage among students. For this purpose, the qualitative method of phenomenology and the theory derived from data were used. In this regard, 21 students who had referred to the Office of the Supreme Leader for registration of Imam Reza pilgrimage were randomly selected. Semi-structured questions about the causes of their tendency toward student marriage and the factors that helped them in this process were studied till the saturation point. Analysis of data through open codes and identification of the main and secondary propositions showed that factors such as suitable location, belonging to the same time period, low cost and parents' opposition to waiting till the end of education lead to student marriage, respectively. These findings indicate that psychological and socioeconomic factors contribute to the process of student marriage.

Keywords: students, student marriage, phenomenological study.