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Studying the Problems of Intercultural Communication

Hassan Yousefzadeh Arbat / Assistant Professor at Jame’at al-Mustafa al-Alamiya and Member of the Board of Directors of Hawzah Social Studies Association                                                                                                                                                                                  usefzadeh.h@gmail.com

Received: 2018/09/06 - Accepted: 2019/01/23



Man has always experienced intercultural communication, but today it has become one of the distinctive features of social life and has raised many questions for man. Addressing these questions makes it easy to manage communication in multicultural environments. Relying on written sources and using the documentary - descriptive methods, this research addresses the most important issues in the field of intercultural communication. The research findings show that in addition to defining intercultural communication, which is seriously disputed in terms of scope and examples, the criterion of interculturality, cultural differences, cultural intelligence, mutual understanding, misunderstanding and perception of the "other" are some of the most important issues playing a role in the success and failure of intercultural communication. These issues are especially highlighted when viewed from an Islamic and normative perspective. The Islamic approach differs with the common view, in particular in terms of interculturality, cultural difference, cultural change, perceptions of the other, and the homelessness state of mind; that is, the problmaticalness of some intercultural issues results from the normative view. The significance of this study lies in this point.

Keywords: intercultural communication, studying the problems, cultural change, cultural intelligence, cultural ability, perception of the other.

The Cultural Requirements from the Perspective of Futurist Social Reconstruction in the Development Documents of the Islamic Republic of Iran


Mohammad Hasan Karimi / Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Educational Sciences, Shiraz University karimivoice@gmail.com

Mehdi Mohammadi / Associate Professor, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Shiraz University


Rahmatullah Marzoughi / Professor of Faculty of Educational Sciences, Shiraz University


Mohammad Mazidi / Associate Professor, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Shiraz University


Sayed-e-Najmeh Taghavi Nasab/ PhD Student of the Philosophy of Education, Shiraz University

Received: 2018/09/23 – Accepted: 2019/01/30                                     taghavinasab.n@gmail.com



Considering rapid changes and predicting future status, social reconstruction theory with a futuristic approach can be effective in solving future cultural challenges. Alvin Toffler is one of the theorists in this area. He describes the future developments of the world, especially in the cultural field, based on the present realities. Using the qualitative content analysis method, this research obtained five important cultural features of future societies including the development of cultural relations over the world, the development of ethnicity, the growth of values and spirituality, the development of individual identity and the family institution. Then, the 1404 Prospectus Document and the Sixth Development Plan Document were analyzed based on these characteristics. The results of the research showed that it is necessary to pay more attention to the development of worldwide cultural relations. Also, more attention must be paid to the future cultural challenges and changes in the production of newer development documents

Keywords: Toffler, culture, development documents, Futurist Social Reconstruction.

An Introduction to the Criticizability of Technology from the Perspectives of Marcuse and Feenberg

Shamsollah Maryji / Associate Professor at the Department of Sociology, Bagher-ol-ulum University


Alireza Mohaddes / PhD Student of the Philosophy of Social Sciences, Bagher-ol-oum University

Received: 2018/09/11 - Accepted: 2019/02/07                                                    Mohaddesalireza@gmail.com



The critical school of Frankfurt has mainly dealt with criticizing the new society and its components. One can also trace this perspective in the critical response of this school to the impartial view of technology. This school emphasizes the need of any kind of knowledge for criticism and reform, and therefore argues that human-technology confrontation requires a critical insight and accordingly presents a critique of technology. Using an analytical-documentary method, this research studies the critical theory of technology from the point of view of Marcuse, a prominent scholar of this school, and his student, Feenberg. The results of the research suggest that there are commonalities and differences between the views of these two thinkers; both thinkers disapprove of the instrumental approach to technology, i.e. the separation of value from knowledge and technology, and the deterministic approach to technology, i.e., the unciticizability and the impossibility of changing technology, and consider technology as valuable and changeable. But they are different in the strategy toward change, i.e. the extension of art to politics and democratization of technology, the level of change, the creators of change i.e. the deprived and the suppressed classes, or the general public and the amount of hope for change.

Keywords: critical school, Marcuse, Feenberg, the value of technology.

The Social Capital of Iranian Instagram Users

Hamid Abdollahiyan / Professor of Social Communication Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tehran University            habdolah@ut.ac.ir

Mohammad Reza Zahraei / PhD Student of Sociology, Payam Noor University of Tehran, Higher Education Branch       hanizahrai@gmail.com

Received: 2018/10/06 – Accepted: 2019/01/22



Instagram is a virtual social network for sharing photos and videos on mobile phones. Considering around 23.5 million Iranian users of Instagram, it's unclear if Instagram activities and users’ relationships are delivering any benefits. Therefore, the research hypothesis is: the social capital generated by Instagram users is likely to be higher than that of Instagram's non-users. To test the hypothesis, two groups of Iranian Instagram users and non-users with Internet-connected smartphones were selected as the statistical population for comparing social capital. On the basis of Putnam's definition, we considered social capital with three dimensions: bonding social capital, bridging social capital, and trust. The method of data collection is reverse online survey method. Sample size was of 1033 determined by the sample size determination method for large communities. The questionnaire link was sent for 15,000 email addresses. The comparison of the mean scores indicates that the social capital means of the two groups of Instagram members and non-members did not have a significant difference, that is, the social capital of Instagram members is not greater than the social capital of non-members. Besides, the bonding and bridging virtual social capital with these two dimensions of social capital is not different in Instagram users and  non-users, but the amount of trust in the real environment is more than that in Instagram environment. This reduction in trust on Instagram seems to be due to the lack of physical contact in this virtual environment.

Keywords: social capital, smart phone, Instagram, virtual social networks, trust.

A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of the Features and Components of Islamic City, Based on Religious Texts

Mohammad Jabbarpour / Assistant Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, Imam Hossein University


Roohollah Abbasi / Assistant Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, Shahed University


Seyyed Hussein Sayedeh / MA Student of Urban Planning, Allameh Tabataba'i University

Received: 2018/07/14 – Accepted: 2018/12/27                                                 Shseyede@gmail.com



Today, the city's general image is similar in the north, south, east, west, and in diverse customs and traditions. In many cases, this form of city has no congruity with the cultural, religious, and social environment of the city. extraction of the features and investigation of the extent and feasibility of the realization of the features of the Islamic city have always attracted the attention of researchers, and have been one of the major concerns in the field of urban planning and architecture. The purpose of this research is to extract and review the features proposed in the context of the Islamic city. In order to provide a general understanding of the concept of "Islamic city" in this framework, this research has reviewed the related sources and extracted the most important features of the “Islamic city” in the form of five elements. Then, these features have been reviewed and the most important ones that can be implemented in the existing conditions have been extracted.

Keywords: religious texts, Islamic city, five elements of city, general image of the city.

Investigating the Relationship between Organizational Ethics and Organizational Spirituality

Mohsen Manteqi / Assistant Professor at the Department of Management, Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research   manteghi@iki.ac.ir

Received: 2018/08/09 – Accepted: 2019/01/21



Aiming at filling the gaps in laws and regulations, organization thinkers seek solutions to the development of morality and spirituality in organizations. Organizational spirituality can be used to solve organizational problems. With the consistency between morality and spirituality, one can provide more ground for the organization’s success. This research is applied in terms of research type. It is qualitative and based on the scale of the "spectrum of Osgood". Osgood spectrum is used to identify the semantic distinction between the two variables. In this method, the well-known concept of morality is focused along with the less known concept of spirituality, and their common structures are identified. In the research, several scales of organizational morality and spirituality were identified and compiled. Then, scales that had common dimensions or meanings were merged and categorized. The results of the research show that there is a great deal of similarity between these two concepts, insomuch as strengthening organizational spirituality is possible through organizational morality. After analyzing and merging the scales, five basic categories of moral and spiritual beliefs, moral and spiritual intelligence, moral and spiritual role models, moral and spiritual attitudes, and practical adherence to morality and spirituality were obtained. Among the categories, moral; and spiritual role models and moral and spiritual beliefs have the greatest impact in strengthening organizational morality and spirituality.

Keywords: organizational morality, organizational spirituality, Osgood Spectrum, management and organization.