The Methodology of Social Science,
with an Emphasis on the Social Commentary of al-Mizan

Sadegh Golestani / Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, IKI

Received: 2018/03/15 - Accepted: 2018/05/22                                sadeq.qolestani47@yahoo.com



Methodology is considered to be among the fundamental issues of social science. This issue plays an important role in developing social science, understanding social theories and judgment them. The importance of this issue has led to constant methodological controversies in social science, including methodological interpretative and explanatory, individualistic and collectivistic controversies. This paper seeks to answer the question concerning the way the social commentary of al-Mizan regards valid for social scinence. Does Al-Mizan emphasize only the empirical method in social science? Does it take an individualistic or a collectivist approach in social science? What is the position of understanding and explanation in the methodology of al-Mizan? Using a descriptive - analytical method and the al-Mizan approach, the present paper answers the question regarding the acquisition of knowledge in social science in three levels. In this approach, empirical method does not suffice for social science; rather, both rational and intuitive methods are needed, and in addition to a valid empirical method, a pluralistic approach and the methodological explanation of individualism and collectivism, the application of an explanatory and understanding method in social science is necessary.

Keywords: methodology, pluralism, explanatory, interpretive, emperical, epistemic foundations.

Designing the Model of Ethical Indicators in the Application of Persuasion Techniques in Religious Issues

Hossein Hajipour /PhD Student of Islamic Ethics, Quran and Hadith University


Hadi Sadeghi / Associate Professor and Faculty Member of Quran and Hadith University

Received: 2018/02/14 - Accepted: 2018/07/11                                             sadeqi.hadi@gmail.com



During the recorded history of persuasion, various forms of persuasion have been developed that have been used in religious propagation. Although the existing methods are analysed and explained based on efficiency and effectiveness, it is also necessary to examine the ethicality of each method. Accordingly, using a research method based on data-based analysis, this paper aims to provide a model of ethical indicators to assess the methods of persuasion in religious issues. The introduction of the proposed model is based on the ethical pillars, principles and indicators of persuasion, so that in the transmitter's pillar, the principles of the intent of the benefactor and his integrity; in the message area, the principles of strength and transparency, and in the field of the recipient, the principles of respect for human dignity and considering the level of audience’s comprehension are addressed. For each of these principles, the related ethical indicators such as the cnsistency of word and behavior, fairness, imparting knowledge, source reliability, creating selection opportunities, and avoidance of degradation are extracted. Finally, by presenting the above model, five persuasive ways of reasoning, repetition, creating hope, creating fear, and creating need are evaluated ethically.

Keywords: persuasion, ethics, ethical indicators, persuasive techniques, model.

Efficient Ways of Social Control
and their Backgrounds in Nahj al-Balaghah

Mahmoud Karimi / Associate professor of Quranic Sciences and Hadith, Imam Sadiq University


Mahnaz Aleali / Ph.D student of Nahj al-Balaghah Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran Jonub Received: 2018/03/02 - Accepted: 2018/08/11                                                                                                 Branchaleali.mahnaz@gmail.com



The importance of social control towards preventing deviation of individuals and groups in the Islamic society is clarified through recommendations available in religious texts and the variety of its methods including divine control, as well as individual, organizational, and public control. A part of the public control emanating from the responsibility of individuals towards each other is manifested through the two obligations of “commanding right” and “forbidding wrong”. Despite the relevance of these obligations and serious attempts in this regard, it seems that “commanding right and forbidding wrong” in its jurisprudential and traditional ways does not have necessary and sufficient influence specifically on the younger generation. Thus the present article seeks to find novel and efficient ways of social control based on Nahj al-Balaghah teachings, besides commanding right and forbidding wrong in its jurisprudential sense. Of course, these ways do have the effects and consequences expected of commanding right and forbidding wrong. Researching into Nahj al -Balaghah, we find out that Imam Ali calls people to good things and prevents them from evil things, in addition to direct commands and prohibitions as one of the ways of social control. The indirect method is used by Imam Ali based on requirements of time, place, and audience in a variety of ways such as encouragement, blaming, praying for, asking divine punishment, expressing surprise, asking questions, preaching, etc. The present research has studied different ways of social control and monitoring in a descriptive analytical method in Nahj al-Balaghah.

Keywords: Nahj al-Balaghah, social control, direct way of control, indirect ways of control.

The Model Function of Messengership
and Imamate and Its Role in Family Lifestyle


Ali Pirhadi / PhD Student of Teaching Islamic knowledge, Allameh Tabataba,i University


Enayatollah Sharifi / Associate Professor of Islamic Knowledge, Allameh Tabataba,i University      enayat.sharifi@yahoo.com

Maryam Rastegar / PhD Student of Teaching Islamic knowledge, Qom University

Received: 2018/06/02 - Accepted: 2018/07/30                                               rastgar147@gmail.com



Nowadays, "lifestyle" is a new term that acts as a soft tool in changing norms. Using the descriptive-analytical method, this research seeks to analyze the relationship and the effect of the model function of Imamate and messengership in the family lifestyle. By explaining lifestyle and describing the model function of the infallibles in the Islamic worldview, a clear picture of the logical relationship and the role of guidance in lifestyle is obtained. In terms of being a role model, the infallibles are the source of "creating style". This role encompasses the educational benefits of the model, including structuring, time efficiency , prevention, and so on. Finally, the picture of the lifestyle model of the infallibles in family component reflects an attempt to create a style with the criteria of "maximum excellence" and "practical endurance" in the believing lifestyle, which is manifested in the preference for eternal reward over worldly pleasures, responsibility over negligence, working hard over seeking pleasure, simplicity over luxury, and selflessness over selfishness.

Keywords: messengership and Imamate, family, lifestyle, infallibles, role model.

Investigating the Role of Socio-Cultural Factors Effective
in Reducing Fertility

Isma’il Cheraghi Koutiani / PhD in Cultural Sociology, IKI                       kotiani@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/11/20 - Accepted: 2018/02/23



The process of modernization has transformed all areas of social life including family. Reduction of fertility is a change the is rooted in family's transformations, and can create many challenges for the Iranian community in the social, cultural, economic, political and security areas. Hence, knowing the socio-cultural reasons for the emergence of this phenomenon is indispensable. On the other hand, knowing the factors affecting the reduction of fertility requires studying family changes, because fertility occurs in the family. Using a descriptive and explanatory method and aided by the secondary analysis of available statistics and the explanation of the most important socio-cultural causes of this phenomenon, this paper has reached a more complete understanding of the causes of this phenomenon. Findings show that urbanization and its culture, the development of literacy and education, increase in marriage age, dramatic growth of divorces, nuclearization of the family, encouraging less childbearing, influence of religion and development of the media are among the most important factors in reduction of fertility.

Keywords: family, fertility, urbanization, divorce, education, age of marriage, media, religion.

The Principles and Foundations Governing the Determination
of the Realm of Freedom in Islam

Ali Ahmadi Amin / PhD Student of the Philosophy of Comparative Ethics, IKI


Mojtaba Misbah / Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, IKI m-mesbah@qabas.net

Received: 2018/01/15 - Accepted: 2018/05/11



In value-based knowledsge, "freedom" refers to the arbitrary action of man in leaving himself or others free. In order to determine the value of freedom, we need some principles and rules that have faced some critisims today, because firstly, these principles are based on a special perception of happiness, and secondly, they lead to the maximum denial of negative freedom. On the other hand, failure to provide ethical principles has also been criticized, because failure to comply with ethical principles leads to neglecting positive freedom. Using an analytical and argumentative method, this research explains the viewpoint of Islam in providing some principles for determining the realm of freedom, and, while committing to rationalism and realism, defends freedom in its negative and positive sense, in such a way that the negative outcomes of uncombinating these two are avoided. Consequently, indifference is rejected, and maximum intervention and prevention is avoided. Given monotheism, creation of man and the world , and considering realism and finalism in the valuation of behavior, Islam sets forth the following principles in determining the realm of freedom: the principle of servanthood, the principle of freedom, the value of meeting needs, commitment to positive freedom and the acceptance of social pluralism . In the area of modification of behavior, some principles and rules such as the necessity of fair thought, regarding people as truthful, the principle of Taghaful( preterition), and the principles of gradual elevation and tolerance are recommended.

Keywords: freedom, Islam, moral foundations, ethical principles, realm of freedom.