Investigating the Effect of Structure on Agency’s Knowledge
and Acti
on from the Point of View of Al-Mizan Social Interpretation


Sadegh Golestani / Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research                                                                                                 sadeq.qolestani47@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/07/21- Accepted: 2017/12/17



The relationship between individual and society is a wide ranging topic in social sciences and sociology. Society and social structure have requirements and effects that influence an individual in various ways. An example in this regard is setting direction for action and shaping knowledge. Understanding this issue is fundamental to the development of social theories and explanations about different phenomena. By analyzing the content of the valuable interpretation of Al-Mizan, this study examines Allama's view on the extent and the way that structure influences agency, and answers questions as to how Al-Mizan addresses the dimensions and extent of the impact of society on action and knowledge and what is the position of agency in social life. Allameh answers these questions based on his inborn anthropology; on the one hand, he acknowledges the influence of society on determining the action of individuals and on forming the knowledge of activists. On the other hand, taking into account the innate element of will power, he does not accept the domination of society in determining agent’s action and knowledge .

Key words: agency, structure, individual, society, knowledge, action, social determination.


Victimology Approach in the Quranic Theory of Deviation


Ali Salimi / Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Tehran ali_salimi@rihu.ac.ir

Received: 2017/08/14 - Accepted: 2018/02/04



Paying attention to victimization, the factors contributing to it and the role of victim in this regard is the main focus in the Qur'anic theory of deviation. This research is a detailed victimological analysis of the Qur'an and aims at formulating and identifying an Islamic theory of deviation based on the propositions in the holy texts of Islam. Regarding the analysis of the Quran, the paper identifies and studies 76 micro, medium, and macro factors in the two sections of the peripheral influences and victim's (potential) influences, and by considering the relations between them, compiles them in the form of a systematic model. It also gains new knowledge about this subject. Using the methodology of qualitative content analysis with a combined approach, the research has been able to observe the rules of text interpretation in both fields of Islamic and social sciences and to arrive at an understanding of the Qur’anic verses and sections which are valid in these two fields of study.

Key words: Quranic theory of edeviation , Qur'anic Shiite interpretation, qualitative content analysis (combined), (eclectic) explanation, victimization, diviation.


The Theoretical Foundations of the Concept of "Representation";
with Emphasis on Epistemological Dimensions


Ne’matollah Karamollahi / Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Bagher al-Ulum Mohammad Hasani / PhD student of Culture and Communications, University of Bagher al-ulum


Received: 2017/06/17 - Accepted: 2017/12/08



This paper is an inquiry into the concept of "representation." Therefore, while reviewing the historical background of the subject, it explains the contemporary views regarding the function of technological media. Representation is a process related to the world of external objects on the one hand, and an activity represented by the agent to the audience through a mediator on the other hand. The process of representation, in this sense, is formed by passing through the three worlds of "being", "presenting" and "representing". Therefore, this paper deals with a theoretical discussion of representation and passage through these three worlds. It is conducted using an analytical-rational method and aims to shed lights on the layers of epistemological -theoretical discussions. In this process, first the " concept" is formed in relation to the of world of “being”. Then, concepts are adjusted, categorized and rearranged in the world of “presentation” and finally, they are transferred to the "representation" world through the expression device. The result is that the representation of an external issue passes through a multi-stage process which is saturated with structure, scope, idea, pre-determined will or preconception, and questions the mere and undisturbed transfer of objective concepts to the audience.

Key words: representation, mediator, imitation, imitating, symbolic representation, epistemology.


An Investigation of Fire at Will Command in the Movie Duel;
a Symbolic-Semiotic Approach


Ali Abbasi / Associate Professor of French Language and Literature, Shahid Beheshti University

Fatemeh Soleimanipur / MA in Dramatic Literature, Iran Broadcasting University


Received: 2017/08/05 - Accepted: 2018/01/08



With the soft invasion of enemy, the inattention of officials in various fields to the priorities and their lack of distinguishing between the main and the secondary issues can inflict considerable damage to the country at national and transnational levels. In these circumstances, when the inspective organizations have faced disruptions, the only choice is to declare a "fire at will" status. In this situation, the young officers of the soft war carry out spontaneous jihadi activities, based on logic, ethics and law, to protect the identity of their country against enemy's invasion. Using the principles of symbolic – semiotic approach, this study seeks to explore the concept of fire at will in the screenplay of Duel (2004). The study of the narrative structure of the film, including the initial, middle and final parts of the movie, suggests that the duel between the characters of the movie creates a dynamic and beautiful structure, harmonizes the narrative components of the work and shows the objective conditions of fire at will against the front of betrayal. It shows the role that revolutionary forces can play in safeguarding the achievements of their country in the blurred conditions of sedition.

Key words: fire at will, soft war, screenplay of duel, narration studies, symbolic, semiotic.


The Spatial Manifestations of Modernity in Yazd and its Social Outcomes


Farhad Nosratinejad / Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Mohammad Reza Sh’abanzadeh / MA in Sociology, Payanor University of Tehran, Parand Branch


Received: 2017/07/10 - Accepted: 2018/01/04



The arrival of modernity in the city of Yazd has created a multiple structure in this city, and has changed the social relations in Yazd society. From this perspective, in the city of Yazd, even in areas where the spatial structure is still traditional, family relationships have changed into pseudo-modern. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial manifestations of modernity and its social effects that are visible in Yazd. Data was collected through documentive studies, field observations, and semi-structured interviews and then, it was analyzed qualitatively. In the interview section, the statistical sample consisted of 15 families living in traditional spaces and 15 families residing in modern spaces. In terms of differences in occupation, age, gender and marital status in different areas of Yazd, sample was selected using saturation method. The results show that the manifestations of the modern spaces in Yazd can be divided into four parts: transitional spaces, hybrid spaces, modern spaces and traditional spaces. Also, there are visible proportions of social relationships appropriate to each of the modern and traditional spaces.

Key words: space, modernity, city, social outcomes, Yazd.


Normative Theory and the Communication Model of "Beginning with Salam" In Islamic Intracultural Verbal Interactions and Comparing it with other Cultures


Mostafa Hamedani/ Graduate of Jurisprudence and Philosophy, Qom Seminary           ma13577ma@gmail.com

Received: 2015/06/30 - Accepted: 2015/12/18



The start of communication, with its diverse patterns in different cultures, has always been of interest to anthropologists and cultural experts. Using the analytical-documentive method and studying the Quranic verses, interpretations and Shia and Sunni religious texts, the present paper has attempted to develop an Islamic strategy of starting communication as a normative theory based on epistemic principles, components of communication process and motivational methods. It compares this Islamic pattern of beginning verbal communications with those in a sample that is representative of the world cultures and is chosen through purposive sampling method. The research results include an explanation of the epistemic foundations and components of the process of “beginning with salam " communication and its normative pattern at the beginning of verbal communication. This theorization shows that: firstly, the "communicative pattern of Beginning with salam" is a complete (self-sufficient) communication process for the spread of the divine name "Salam" and its effects on security and friendship and etc., and not just an introduction to communication. Secondly, unlike the common definitions of communication, this pattern does not strive for purely persuasive goals. Third, there is no equivalent for the meaning of this pattern in other cultures.

Key words: normative theory, intracultural communication, initiation of communication, salam, communication beginning with salam.