Habermas’s View on the Methodology of the Social Sciences
and the
Perspective of Transcendental Philosophy on it


Abdullah Zaki / PhD student of Muslim's social science, IKI                          zakighaznvi@yahoo.com

Ali Misbah / associate professor of philosophy, IKI                                                a-mesbah@qabas.net

Received: 2016/02/17 - Accepted: 2016/08/14



Since its foundation, the social sciences has faced the question as to what specific methodology the social sciences has. Different paradigms including positivist, interpretive and critical give different responses to this question, and each of them claims to have superiority over the other. Criticizing the positivist and interpretive methodologies and reviewing the concepts of the critical paradigm, Habermas proposes three epistemical attachments and divides sciences into experimental, interpretive and critical. In the frame of this epistemological proposal, Habermas claims that the particular methodology of the social sciences is "dialectical". Using an analytical-critical method and a holistic approach, this paper examines the relationship of ontological, epistemological, anthropological and axiological principles of this method with its components from the perspective of transcendental philosophy. Transcendental philosophy considers that Habermas methodology has serious drawbacks. Some of its components do not correspond with the philosophical system of transcendental philosophy and some others are in contradiction these principles.

Key words: methodology, transcendental philosophy, dialectic, Habermas, the social sciences.

The Metaphors of Naturalism and Ibn Khaldun's Imagination


Ali Ya’qubi / assistant professor of sociology, University of Guilan        aliyaghoobi2002@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/08/07 - Accepted: 2017/01/15



Long ago man, in addition to making objective and practical use of the animate and inanimate beings in his environment including solid bodies, plants and animals, assumed imaginary and symbolic relations according to his environmental, climatic and social context. Culture and cultural institutions prepare the ground for all types of systematization and conceptualization. The temperament-based view based on the multiple temperaments and relationship of man with inanimate beings ,animals and plants are found in a more fundamental framework of "human- nature" which turn, over time, from concrete implications into abstract and metaphorical implications. These metaphors have a major role in Ibn Khaldun's epistemical imagination and discourse. Using a documentive method, this paper discusses the use of naturalist metaphors in the epistemical principles of Ibn Khaldun's discourse. Today, although social thinkers and scholars regard naturalist and temperament- based metaphors as dead and obsolete, these metaphors have formulated the epistemical principles and presumptions of Ibn Khaldun’s thoughts. He also uses the temperament –based metaphors to explain both the world of the senses and social world.

Key words: metaphor, naturalism, temperament-based view, imagination, Ibn Khaldun.

Religion and Family; the Generational Differences
in Religiosity among the Clerical and Non-Clerical Families in Qom


Mohsen Niazi / professor of sociology, University of Kashan

Mohsen Shaterian / associate professor of human - geography demography, University of Kashan

Mohammad Amin Pakzaman Qomi (Author) / PhD students of investigating Iran’ss problems, Kashan University      pakzaman.amin@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/06/23 - Accepted: 2016/12/20



Generational religious changes are among the fundamental issues in transitional societies. Explaining this issue, most research works are based solely on macro-structural approaches. In addition to studying the macro approaches, the present research emphasizes on the minor range phenomenon such as family, and through comparing clerical and non-clerical families, seeks to expound the role of family- religious components in explaining the generational difference in terms of religiosity. In this research, the survey method and questionnaire technique were used to collect data. From among all the clerical and non-clerical families in Qom, with at least one child between 18 to 29 years old, 390 fathers and one of their children were selected through multistage cluster sampling. The research findings show that, in addition to the significant relationship between generational difference and variables of parents’ religious compatibility, father’s knowledge of the importance of religion, and religious socialization, in clerical families, the generational difference in terms of religiosity is significantly lower than that of non- clerical families.

Key words: generational differences, religiosity, family, clerical, religious socialization.

The Relationship between Legal Guidance
and Demographic Policies and Challenges


Sayyed Morteza Mousavi / MA students of Islamic theology, IKI             mortaza136017@yahoo.com

Mohammad Ja’fari / assistant professor at the department of theology, IKI      mjafari125@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/03/05 - Accepted: 2016/08/29



The teachings of legal guidance, which have been sent down to help mankind achieve true happiness, have as broad a scope as all the voluntary actions of man, and any society can find true happiness through following these teachings. Demographic policymaking is one of the examples of man’s voluntary behaviors and its relationship with the teachings of legal guidance must be properly explored, so that in light of it, we can keep safe from trial and errors in materialistic demographic policies. Relying on such teachings, we believe the best demographic policy is the one that is in perfect harmony with the teachings of the divine legislative guidance and is developed to increase the Muslim population. This type of demographic policy is supported by God’s existential and legal will and its implementation satisfies man’s material and spiritual needs in the best way. It also overcomes the various social challenges facing population growth or minimize them as much as possible.

Key words: legal guidance, demographic policy, population growth, demographic challenges.

The Impact of Oil-Dependent Economy
on Causing Inter Standard Imbalances
in the Culture of the Revolution and Undermining Deep Empathy


Alireza Mohaddeth / PhD student in the philosophy of social sciences, Baqer al-Olum University


Ne’matollah Karamallahi / assistant professor at the department of social sciences, Baqer al-Olum University n.karamollahi@gmail.com

Received: 2016/02/21 - Accepted: 2016/08/18



The Islamic Revolution of Iran is rooted in the consistent standard of religious culture. Therefore, the development of deep empathy must be sought in the hidden capacities of its cultural foundations. Achieving this goal would be possible only by identifying and eliminating the factors that hinder the development of deep empathy in the culture of the Revolution. Using an analytical method, this paper examines some of these factors in the context of of oil-dependent economy. The research findings show that oil-dependent economy is one of the important factors contributing to the imbalances in economic development and social justice, and thus creating a feeling of "social injustice" to the "injustice of God" and " emergence of a semi-organized mistrust ", generalization about considering " technical grace " as a " cultural grace”, and a barrier to " opening a dialogue on Islamic- human sciences "and" development of deep empathy ".The basic strategy for reducing these effects is building a generative and resistive economy dependent on the fundamental standaed of Islamic culture , seeking to strike a balance between economic development and social justice and creating compatibility between the fundamental standard and superficial standard of the native culture to develop deep empathy.

Key words: oil-dependent economy, culture, the fundamental and superficial standards of culture, the culture of the Islamic Revolution, deep empathy.

A Methodological Approach to the Nature of Crime
from Durkheim's Point of View


Mojtaba Javidi /assistant professor at the University of Shiraz                       mojtabajavidi@gmail.com

Received: 2016/03/12 - Accepted: 2016/08/29



Using a methodological approach, the present paper has studied the nature of crime from Durkheim's point of view, his methodical principles and their impact on the definition of crime. From Durkheim's point of view, crime is an action that hurts society’s collective feelings and for which the legislator imposes punishment. The principles of Durkheim’s positivistic method include separation from metaphysics, separation from sacred intellect, naturalism and separation of science from value. These principles have influenced his definition of crime, caused a lack of practical intellect and led to impossibility of judging the value of positive science in Durkheim’s thoughts. Accordingly, he is unable to develop an essential criterion for criminalization of actions, and has to fulfill the above-mentioned formal criteria in his definition. In practice, however, in identifying "immoral act", that is the foundation of the knowledge of "essential criterion for crime", he relies on the criterion of "benefit" which highlights a significant gap between his theory and practice.

Key words: Durkheim, crime, methodology, positivistic approach, collective conscience, law.

"Mahdism Horizon" and the Development of a Prospect for
a "Ground-preparing Civilization" in the Future Islamic Republic of Iran


Abuzar Mozahari Moqaddam / assistant professor of the department of the history of contemporary thoughts, IKI         mashrooteh@qabas.net

Received: 2016/01/21 - Accepted: 2016/05/30



Today, the reappraisal of the topic of the objective and historical basis of "Islamic civilization" in the discourse and literature of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s revolution has become a scientific concern. This study tries to respond to a part of this problem by using the approach of futurology and resting on the method of "exploring the historical horizon" of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the history of every nation, identifying the horizons contributes to considering and determining the future of the nation. In the conflict between the active approach and passive approach to the phenomenon of the appearance of Imam Mahdi, the Islamic Republic of Iran opted for the active approach that led to the historical development of its nation and the outbreak of the Islamic Revolution. Showing perseverance and raising self-awareness of this historical futurology, Islamic revolution could outline its version as a ground-preparing civilization by determining its bright future i.e. continuous evolution which paves the way for the appearance of Imam Mahdi.

Key words: the Islamic Republic of Iran, historical futurology, Mahdism horizon, bright future, probable future, ground-preparing civilization.