The Philosophical Principles of Identity in the View of Martin Heidegger
Keramatollah Rasekh/ Associate professor of sociology, Islamic Azad University, Jahrom Branch
Received: 2015/05/11 - Accepted: 2015/10/29
This paper seeks to examine the philosophical principles of identity in the view of the German philosopher, Martin Heidegger. The research is a quantitative library-based survey based on a ‘’thematic-oriented theory’’. The main question in Heidegger’s philosophy is about the meaning of existence, the subject of his philosophy is ontology and the method of his work is phenomenology. Heidegger maintains that cognition and philosophy are rooted in history and society, and he considers that time has the duty of establishing the world. Therefore, the origin of our cognition, including formal cognition in the form of new disciplines and our informal cognition in the form of daily knowledge, including the knowledge of identity, has historical property and it is the product of environment and time, and, therefore, it belongs to the world of life. The research findings show that it is possible to provide a philosophical model of identity with the aim of investigating the question of identity as a social issue.
Key words: philosophical principles, identity, ontology, phenomenology, Martin Heidegger.
A Critical Assessment of the Epistemic Principles of Michel Foucault’s Genealogy in the View of Mulla Sadra's Philosophy
Hassan Abdi/ Assistant professor of Baqer al-Uloom University
Ramazan Ali Fazel/ MA student of social philosophy, IKI firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 2015/06/16 - Accepted: 2015/12/05
Michel Foucault’s genealogy is a theory which emphasizes on his epistemic principles and denies inherent purposefulness and orientation. The most important epistemic principles of this theory are nominalism, power-centeredness, fortuitism, constructivism, historiography, considering intellect and truth as relative, adopting coherent theory about the justification of cognition. These epistemic principles can be evaluated according to the Mulla Sadra's philosophical principles, such as: the principle of reality, dividing existence into independent and copulative, the principle of causality unity of the system of being, and its purposefulness, the existence of divine traditions in managing societies and history, the existence of incontrovertible facts, the possibility of absolute and certain cognition, fundamentalism in the justification of cognition, verisimilitude of cognition, the two-dimensional nature of man, the originality of human soul, awareness, man’s will and purposefulness, the common nature of human beings, and validity of empirical, rational and intuitive methods.
Key words: Michel Foucault, epistemic principles, genealogy, critical assessment, Mulla Sadra's philosophy.
A Critical Analysis of Resistance in Michel Foucault's Thoughts
Hamid Parsania/ Associate professor of Tehran University
Zaher Yosefi/ PhD student of islamic philosophy, Al-Mustafa International University
Received: 2015/07/31 - Accepted: 2016/01/06
The question of deliverance and resistance which represents the final aim of Michel Foucault's research projects, has not received due attention in spite of their importance.
Having described and analyzed Foucault’s view about resistance, this paper fundamentally criticizes it in reference to certain anthropological assumptions included in it.
Since Foucault’s thought on resistance is centered on the negation of the subject, resistance, like the subject, concentrate on three questions: truth, power and morality. Resistance, like the application of power is, in contrast with power and its regime of truth, like power, has two forms: positive and negative.
Foucault’s sees that the positive form of resistance that comes into being outside the framework of hegemony, manifests itself as an aesthetic form.
But, the essence of negative resistance is formed by the negation and rejection of subjection resulting from the truth-power regime and the limitations placed on its maker, in order to achieve deliverance and freedom which can be divided into two forms: theoretical and practical.
Key words: Michel Foucault, power, truth, resistance, de-subjectification, truth policy, morality resistance, foundations of anthropology.
The Application of Discourse Theory in Sociology of Knowledge
Mohammad Tavakol/ Professor of Sociology department, Tehran University
Noah Monavvari/ PhD student of cultural-theoretical sociology, Tehran University
Received: 2015/12/20 - Accepted: 2016/05/26
New sociology of knowledge, as distinct from the classical pattern of sociology of knowledge, in which society has a causal relationship with knowledge is concerned with cultural atmosphere and semantic interpretation, and this renders important the understanding of discourse of knowledge. Giving a brief account of the history of sociology of knowledge, the present paper seeks to expound the theoretical background of discourse theory in sociology of knowledge.
This paper cites Claire Rayner’s research program entitled "sociology of knowledge approach to discourse" as an example of attempting to explicitly like these two areas and criticizes it .
Claire’s look at sociology of knowledge corresponds to that of Berger and Luckmann and Michel Foucault's discourse theory. Claire’s innovation can be understood through demonstrating the relationship between discourse theory and sociology of knowledge.
Two objections are raised against Claire’s work. First, she does not explain how discourses develop and become hegemonic and how hegemonic discourses are challenged.
Secondly, Rayner Claire’s focus on discourse analysis makes her response to the question of social determination of knowledge highly abmigueous.
Key words: discourse, sociology of knowledge, Michel Foucault, Berger and Luckmann, Rayner Claire.
A Review of Women’s Role in the Sacred Defense Cinema;
from Reality to Representation
Mahdi Davud Abadi / instructor and PhD student of the philosophy of religious art, University of religions and denominations, Qum
Fatemeh Ahmadi / MA student of dramatic literature, college of IRIB (Sedā va Sima), Qum
Received: 2016/01/12 - Accepted: 2016/06/20
Making up about half of the country’s population, women have played an instrumental role in all the important events, especially during the imposed war. Given the pervasiveness of the media of cinema and its impact on the audience, producing a true representation of women’s role in the cinema of Sacred Defense is of great importance in filling the existing gaps. Reviewing the theoretical foundations of representation and qualitative analysis, the present paper examines the actual role of women in the war and the way they are represented in the Sacred Defense cinema. The main question of this paper is to what extent the representation of women in the Sacred Defense cinema reflects the reality of women's presence in the war and their influential role. The findings show that women have not been fairly represented in three areas: their activity behind the front, their presence in the battlefield and their postwar activities. In some other areas, women have not been represented as having an active role, but the representation seems to be prosaic and clichéd.
Key words: representation, women, cinema, the Sacred Defense, clichéd.
The Grounds for Extramarital Relations in Iran,
A Case Study of Tehran
Seyyed Hossein Sharaffoddin / associate professor of sociology department of IKI
Abdol al-Hadi Salehi Zadeh / PhD student of sociology, IKI email@example.com
Received: 2016/01/07 - Accepted: 2016/06/01
Sexual infidelity which is one of the instances of sex explicitness is one of the grave problems which has harmful effects on the Iranian culture and which has been the special concern of socio cultural thinkers, policy makers and managers. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of the problem of infidelity, the present qualitative study explores the social grounds of infidelity in the contemporary Iranian society. Making a thematic analysis of the views of the men and women who have, intentionally or unintentionally, experienced infidelity or betrayal, the study explores such reasons like tangible causes and internal and external controls. The interviewees acknowledge that the factors contributing to adulterous sexual infidelity include possessing some positive qualities such as attractive appearance, wealth and ability to win the affection of the opposite sex; besides some situational features like the open atmosphere for expression one's affection and regular relations with the opposite sex, ineffective factors of self-control, including religious and moral aspects and external controls such as poor performance of legal restraining factors.
Key words: explicitness, sex explicitness, infidelity, grounds of sexual infidelity.
The Demographical Implications of Feminist Theory
Ismail Cheraghi Kotiyani/ PhD student of cultural sociology, IKI firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 2015/04/27 - Accepted: 2015/09/08
The renovation process along with the deep changes in the different areas of mans' individual and social life have caused changes to the family which plays a main role in human life. The social development is among the consequences of these changes which caused human society to encounter a serious challenge. In the second half of recent century, renovation has affected human societies through various factors and cause decrease in child-bearing. One of these factors is fostering the culture of feminism. Using a library-based and document-based method, this paper deals with the demographic arguments of feminism. The findings show that the feminist thought has affected the social development and reduced the level of child-bearing by spreading such ideas, like individualism, negative attitude towards marriage, towards child-bearing and towards the role of the mother, and legalizing abortion and complete sexual freedom, belittling house-work and encouraging women to get higher education and work outside and also encouraging them to redefine women’s identity. It seems that the arguments of feminism have caused new problems for societies and they are rejected because of inconformity with religious teachings and Islamic-Iranian family pattern.
Key words: feminism, feminist thought, argument, population, child-bearing.